Genotyping cancer-associated genes in chordoma identifies mutations in oncogenes and areas of chromosomal loss involving CDKN2A, PTEN, and SMARCB1.

Genotyping cancer-associated genes in chordoma identifies mutations in oncogenes and areas of chromosomal loss involving CDKN2A, PTEN, and SMARCB1.

The molecular mechanisms underlying chordoma pathogenesis are unknown. We due to this fact sought to determine novel mutations to higher perceive chordoma biology and to doubtlessly determine therapeutic targets. Given the comparatively excessive prices of entire genome sequencing, we carried out a centered genetic evaluation utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer (Sequenom iPLEX genotyping).

We examined 865 hotspot mutations in 111 oncogenes and chosen tumor suppressor genes (OncoMap v. 3.0) of 45 human chordoma tumor samples. Of the analyzed samples, seven had been recognized with no less than one mutation. Six of these had been from contemporary frozen samples, and one was from a paraffin embedded pattern. These observations had been validated utilizing an impartial platform utilizing homogeneous mass prolong MALDI-TOF, and SMARCB1 (R40*).

This research experiences on the biggest complete mutational evaluation of chordomas carried out so far. To concentrate on mutations which have the best likelihood of medical relevance, we examined solely oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes which have been beforehand implicated in the tumorigenesis of extra widespread malignancies. We recognized uncommon genetic adjustments which will have practical significance to the underlying biology and potential therapeutics for chordomas. Mutations in CDKN2A and PTEN occurred in areas of chromosomal copy loss.

When this information is paired with the research displaying 18 of 21 chordoma samples displaying copy loss on the locus for CDKN2A, 17 of 21 chordoma samples displaying copy loss at PTEN, and 3 of 4 chordoma samples displaying deletion on the SMARCB1 locus, we are able to infer {that a} loss of heterozygosity at these three loci could play a big position in chordoma pathogenesis. In transfusion medication, red-cell genotyping can overcome the restrictions of hemagglutination. It have to be used solely in conditions the place it offers a profit both for the affected person or useful resource administration. For implementation of acceptable transfusional practices, this method requires a sound information of the genetic traits of blood teams and clinically related variants. It additionally requires competency with molecular biology instruments and constantly up to date scientific information.

Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny and evolution of the filarial nematode Wuchereria bancrofti.

 

Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) is essentially the most broadly distributed of the three nematodes recognized to trigger lymphatic filariasis (LF), the opposite two being Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Current instruments accessible to watch LF are restricted to diagnostic checks focusing on DNA repeats, filarial antigens, and anti-filarial antibodies. While these instruments are helpful for detection and surveillance, elimination packages have but to take full benefit of molecular typing for inferring an infection historical past, pressure fingerprinting, and evolution.

To date, molecular typing approaches have included entire mitochondrial genomes, genotyping, focused sequencing, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). These research have revealed a lot about Wb biology. For instance, in one research in Papua New Guinea researchers recognized 5 main strains that had been widespread and many minor strains some of which exhibit geographic stratification. Genome information, whereas uncommon, has been utilized to reconstruct evolutionary relationships amongst taxa of the Onchocercidae (the clade of filarial nematodes) and determine gene synteny.

Their phylogeny reveals that speciation from the widespread ancestor of each B. malayi and Wb occurred round 5-6 tens of millions years in the past with shared ancestry to different filarial nematodes as latest as 15 million years in the past. These discoveries maintain promise for gene discovery and figuring out drug targets in species which are extra amenable to in vivo experiments. Continued technological developments in entire genome sequencing and information evaluation will doubtless change many different kinds of molecular typing, multiplying the quantity of information accessible on inhabitants construction, genetic variety, and phylogenetics.

Once broadly accessible, the addition of inhabitants genetic information from genomic research ought to hasten the elimination of LF parasites like Wb. Infectious illness management packages have benefited tremendously from inhabitants genetics information and just lately from inhabitants genomics information. However, whereas there may be presently a surplus of information for ailments like malaria and HIV, there’s a shortage of this information for filarial nematodes. With the falling price of genome sequencing, analysis on filarial nematodes may gain advantage from the addition of inhabitants genetics statistics and phylogenetics particularly in coping with elimination packages. A complete evaluate specializing in inhabitants genetics of filarial nematode doesn’t but exist.

Here our objective is to offer a present overview of the molecular epidemiology of W. bancrofti (Wb) the first causative agent of LF. We start by reviewing research using molecular typing methods with particular concentrate on genomic and inhabitants datasets. Next, we used entire mitochondrial genome information to assemble a phylogeny and look at the evolutionary historical past of the Onchocercidae. Then, we offer a perspective to assist in understanding how inhabitants genetic methods translate to trendy epidemiology. Finally, we introduce the idea of genomic epidemiology and present some examples that may assist in future research of Wb.

Genotyping cancer-associated genes in chordoma identifies mutations in oncogenes and areas of chromosomal loss involving CDKN2A, PTEN, and SMARCB1.

Novel syngeneic mouse mammary carcinoma cell strains from aggressive ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/PTEN-deficient tumors.

 

Breast most cancers cell strains and mouse fashions are beneficial instruments for investigating the biology of and creating potential therapeutics for human breast carcinoma. The PTEN-/-/NIC mouse is a genetically engineered mouse model strain for ErbB2/Neu-overexpressing/‑PTEN poor breast carcinoma with histopathological and molecular options related to the luminal subtype of major human breast most cancers. However, the PTEN-/-/NIC mannequin develops multifocal and aggressive mammary tumors with a brief life-span, which tremendously impedes its preclinical utilization.

Acetic acid, glacial, Ph. Eur. grade

GV9212-2500ML 2500 ml
EUR 102

Acetic acid, glacial, Ph. Eur. grade

GV9212-5L 5 l
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Phenol, (Carbolic acid) Double distilled for Molecular Biology

PD0252 500g
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Urea, suitable for molecular biology

GE1210-1KG 1 kg
EUR 89

Urea, suitable for molecular biology

GE1210-500G 500 g
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Sucrose, GlenBiol, suitable for molecular biology

GC3201-1KG 1 kg
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BCIP (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE108 250 mg
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BCIP (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE109 1 g
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CHAPS (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE114 1 g
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CHAPS (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE115 5 g
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CHAPS (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE116 25 g
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DAPI (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE117 5 mg
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DAPI (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE118 25 mg
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DAPI (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE119 100 mg
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Dimethylsulfoxide (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE120 100 ml
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Dimethylsulfoxide (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE121 500 ml
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DTT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE131 5 g
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DTT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE132 10 g
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DTT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE133 25 g
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Glycine (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE158 1 kg
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Glycine (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE159 5 kg
EUR 190

HEPES (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE171 100 g
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HEPES (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE172 500 g
EUR 224

HEPES (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE173 1 kg
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Lysozyme (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE188 1 g
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Lysozyme (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE189 10 g
EUR 206

NAD (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE196 1 g
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NAD (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE197 5 g
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NBT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE209 1 g
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NBT (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE210 5 g
EUR 300

Tris (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE237 500 g
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Tris (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE238 1 kg
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Tris (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE239 5 kg
EUR 446

Tween20 (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE242 1 l
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Water (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE243 500 ml
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Water (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE244 1 l
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Acetic acid

GV2353-100ML 100 ml
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Acetic acid

GV2353-1L 1 l
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Acetic acid

GV2353-2500ML 2500 ml
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Acetic acid

GV2353-500ML 500 ml
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Acetic acid

GV2353-5L 5 l
EUR 109

Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE105 250 g
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Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE106 1 kg
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Ammonium sulfate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE107 5 kg
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Bis-Acrylamid (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE110 50 g
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Bis-Acrylamid (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE111 250 g
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Formamide deionized (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE145 500 ml
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Formamide deionized (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE146 1 l
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Glycerol 87 % (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE154 1 l
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Glycerol waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE155 500 ml
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CE156 1 l
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Glycerol waterfree (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE157 2.5 l
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Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE160 100 g
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Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE161 250 g
EUR 128

Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE162 500 g
EUR 194

Guanidine - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE163 1 kg
EUR 294

Guanidine Thiocyanate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE164 100 g
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Guanidine Thiocyanate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE165 500 g
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Guanidine Thiocyanate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE166 1 kg
EUR 256

Urea Crystalline (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE167 1 kg
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Urea Crystalline (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE168 5 kg
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MOPS buffer (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE194 100 g
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MOPS buffer (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE195 250 g
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Sodium chloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE205 500 g
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Sodium chloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE206 1 kg
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CE207 5 kg
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CE224 500 g
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CE225 1 kg
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CE226 5 kg
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Tris - Hydrochloride (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE234 250 g
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CE235 500 g
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CE236 1 kg
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TritonX-100 (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE240 500 ml
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TritonX-100 (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE241 1 l
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41024-4L 4L
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Tween 20, Molecular Biology Grade

T9100-010 100ml
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T9100-050 500ml
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Tween 20, Molecular Biology Grade

T9100-100 1L
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Water, distilled, GlenBiol™, suitable for molecular biology

GK8512-1L 1 l
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Agarose, low EEO, GlenBiol, suitable for molecular biology

GE6258-100G 100 g
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0.2M Acetic Acid

CA077-010 100ml
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Gossypol (acetic acid)

HY-17510 500mg
EUR 291

Gossypol-acetic acid

GX3431-250MG 250 mg
EUR 126

EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE135 250 g
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EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE136 500 g
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EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE137 1 kg
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EDTA - Dinatriumsalz - Dihydrat (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE138 5 kg
EUR 349

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CE148 500 g
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CE149 1 kg
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CE150 5 kg
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Yeast extract powder (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE169 500 g
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Hyaluronidase Grade I (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE174 1 g
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CE175 5 g
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Magnesium acetate - Tetrahydrate (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE190 500 g
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CE198 1 g
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NADH - Disodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE199 5 g
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CE200 250 mg
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CE201 1 g
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CE202 25 mg
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NADPH - Tetrasodium salt (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE204 500 mg
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SSC Buffer (20X) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE229 1 l
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CE250 100 mg
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CE251 500 mg
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CE100 50 g
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CE101 100 g
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CE102 250 g
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Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE103 500 g
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Albumin fraction V (pH7,0) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE104 1 kg
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(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid

HY-15464A 50mg
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HY-15464D 50mg
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Naphthalene-1-acetic acid

GK4917-100G 100 g
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Naphthalene-1-acetic acid

GK4917-250G 250 g
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Naphthalene-1-acetic acid

GK4917-25G 25 g
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Tetrazole-1-acetic acid

GE9742-1G 1 g
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Tetrazole-1-acetic acid

GE9742-5G 5 g
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Indole-3-acetic acid

I014-25G 25 g
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Indole-3-acetic acid

I014-5G 5 g
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2-Maleimido acetic acid

20-abx183222
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Acetic Acid Solution (0.5%)

AAD125 125 ml
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AAD250 250 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (0.5%)

AAD500 500 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (0.5%)

AAD999 1000 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (1%)

AAE125 125 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (1%)

AAE500 500 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (1%)

AAE999 1000 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (3%)

AAG3800 1 Gal.
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Acetic Acid Solution (3%)

AAG500 500 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (3%)

AAG999 1000 ml
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AAK500 500 ml
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Acetic Acid Solution (12%)

AAK999 1000 ml
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Acetic Acid (50 mM)

2112-2
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Acetic Acid (50 mM)

2112-20
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6-methoxy Naphthalene Acetic Acid

C5733-10 10 mg
EUR 116
Description: 6-methoxy Naphthalene Acetic Acid is a competitive and non-selective COX inhibitor with Ki values of 21 and 19 ?M for ovine COX-1 and -2, respectively [1][2][3].

6-methoxy Naphthalene Acetic Acid

C5733-100 100 mg
EUR 363
Description: 6-methoxy Naphthalene Acetic Acid is a competitive and non-selective COX inhibitor with Ki values of 21 and 19 ?M for ovine COX-1 and -2, respectively [1][2][3].

6-methoxy Naphthalene Acetic Acid

C5733-50 50 mg
EUR 206
Description: 6-methoxy Naphthalene Acetic Acid is a competitive and non-selective COX inhibitor with Ki values of 21 and 19 ?M for ovine COX-1 and -2, respectively [1][2][3].

2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)acetic acid

HY-W004206 100mg
EUR 108

5-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid

HY-W008253 10mM/1mL
EUR 113

2-(2-Methylbenzamido)acetic acid

HY-W015060 500mg
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Indole 3 Acetic Acid (BSA)

20-abx165761
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Indole 3 Acetic Acid (OVA)

20-abx165762
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Boc-3-(aminooxy)acetic acid

20-abx183892
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Imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid

20-abx184125
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1H-Tetrazole-1-acetic acid

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Acetic Acid 2-Phenoxyethyl Ester

20-abx186365
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2-(2-Fluorophenoxy)acetic acid

20-abx186679
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2-Oxindole-3-Acetic Acid

abx188274-25g 25 g
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5 Hydroxyindole acetic acid [HRP]

DAGB328 0.5ml
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Indole-3-acetic Acid (IAA)

CP052-025 25g
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Indole-3-acetic Acid (IAA)

CP052-100 100g
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6,7-Dihydroxycoumarin-4-Acetic Acid

TBW00277 20mg
EUR 271

2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

DB0166 100g
EUR 64.51
  • Product category: Culture Media/Growth Regulators/Plant

ELISA kit for General IAA (Indole 3 Acetic Acid)

ELK7852 1 plate of 96 wells
EUR 372
  • A monoclonal antibody specific to Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) has been pre-coated onto a microplate. A competitive inhibition reaction is launched between biotin labeled Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) and unlabeled Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) (Standards or
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Description: A competitive Inhibition ELISA kit for detection of Indole 3 Acetic Acid from General in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids.

EDTA solution pH 8.0 (0.5 M) (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE141 500 ml
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LB-Agar - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE178 500 g
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LB-Agar - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE179 2.5 kg
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LB-Agar - Powder according to Miller (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE180 500 g
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LB-Agar - Powder according to Miller (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE181 2.5 kg
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CE182 500 g
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LB-Medium - Powder according to Lennox (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE183 2.5 kg
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LB-Medium - Powder according to Miller (Molecular Biology Grade)

CE184 2.5 kg
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Agarose LE, Ultra-Pure Molecular Biology Grade, 100 g

41028-100G 100G
EUR 222
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 100G

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41028-25G 25G
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Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 25G

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Indole-3-acetic acid sodium salt

GV0584-5G 5 g
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Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) Antibody

20-abx101873
  • EUR 398.00
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(Tetrahydro-Furan-3-Yl)-Acetic Acid

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2-((2-Aminoethyl)Amino)Acetic Acid

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2-(tert-Butylamino)acetic acid hydrochloride

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(7-Methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetic acid

Q-1865.0001 1.0g
EUR 151
Description: Sum Formula: C12H10O5; CAS# [62935-72-2]

(7-Methoxycoumarin-4-yl)acetic acid

Q-1865.0005 5.0g
EUR 515
Description: Sum Formula: C12H10O5; CAS# [62935-72-2]

AGAROSE LE, LOW EEO, MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GRADE, 100G PER UNIT

AGR-LE-100 1/pk
EUR 168
Description: Bioscience Mol Bio; Agarose

Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) ELISA Kit

20-abx150354
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Acetic acid,2,2,2-trifluoro-, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl ester

20-abx183831
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2-(5-Bromo-2-Chlorophenyl)Acetic Acid

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(2-Chloro-Phenyl)-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester

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(R)-2-(Tetrahydrofuran-3-Yl)Acetic-Acid

abx188023-10g 10 g
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Indole 3 Acetic Acid (IAA) CLIA Kit

20-abx190011
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To complement the genetic engineering strategy and to facilitate the long run utility of this mannequin, in the current research, two newly established cell strains, NICP20 and NICP21, from PTEN-/-/NIC mammary tumors are described. These NICP20 and NICP21 cells retained the essential molecular phenotype much like the origin, as confirmed by genotyping and western blot evaluation. These cells induced tumors in immunocompetent syngeneic mice by mammary fats pad injection and produced lung metastasis when injected intravenously.